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 Forum index » House Training » HOWTO ( Solutions )
How to reduce the size of Debian Live image
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saintless


Joined: 11 Jun 2011
Posts: 3882
Location: Bulgaria

PostPosted: Sun 28 Jun 2015, 07:36    Post subject:  

Similar to Debian experimenting with Linux Mint 17 (Ubuntu based) after reading Mintpup thread from wanderer.
The result is much smaller base without xorg and autologin as root (multiuser function is still available and functional). The point to remove safe all possible packages is to start fresh system build without installing recommended packages.
Started with frugal install on sda1 having /casper directory with initrd.lz, vmlinuz and filesystem.squashfs (1,3 Gb).
Second ext3 partition with label casper-rw used for saving the changes.
Grub menu list boot code:
Code:
title Linux Mint
root (hd0,0)
kernel /casper/vmlinuz boot=casper ignore_uuid persistent
initrd /casper/initrd.lz

After booting as live user mint exit to console by pressing Ctrl+Alt+F1
Create root password and login as root:
Code:
sudo passwd root #type new root password.
sudo login #login as root


Removing the packages - more or less complete list of purge commands using the package list information in /var/lib/dpkg/info and status.
Avoid removing package if you need to confirm with "Yes, do as I say!" or you will end up with broken system.
Code:
apt-get purge acl
apt-get purge aptitude accountsservice sane* cups* gnome* man-db bamfdaemon desktop-file-utils mime-support
apt-get purge hicolor* doc-base
apt-get purge java* libreoffice* libqt* gir1.2*
apt-get purge shared-mime* fontconfi*
apt-get purge xserver*
apt-get purge virtualbox*
apt-get purge cron* anacro*
apt-get purge xfce*
apt-get purge mint*
apt-get purge compiz*
apt-get purge apt-transport-https aptdaemon-data dictionaries* espeak* evince* friendly* gnome* gstreamer* grub* policykit* libicu* libllvm*
apt-get purge wayland*
apt-get purge jack*
apt-get purge pulseaudio*
apt-get purge libgl1*
apt-get purge gvfs* totem* mplay* vlc* system*
apt-get purge java* language* libreoff* firefox* cups* python*
apt-get purge apt-xapian-index
rm -fr ./apt-xapian-index
apt-get purge liblangtag-common mtools mtr-tiny syslinux-legacy libgcr-3-common avahi-autoipd syslinux-common
apt-get purge libdirac-encoder0
apt-get purge kpartx hexchat-common libtext-wrapi18n-perl fonts-freefont-ttf hwdata
apt-get purge fonts*
apt-get purge hddtemp memtest86+ libsocket6-perl libmtp-common fonts*
apt-get purge ndiswrapper-common
apt-get purge fonts-tlwg-typo ecryptfs-utils libclass-accessor-perl p11-kit telnet gpgv libzvbi-common gettext-base
apt-get purge ecryptfs-utils libclass-accessor-perl p11-kit telnet gettext-base
apt-get purge archdetect-deb sound-theme-freedesktop localechooser-data libgdbm3 libavcodec54 libsox-fmt-alsa
apt-get purge libwildmidi-config locate libgtop2-common ubiquity-ubuntu-artwork cpp-4.8 user-setup
apt-get purge libgeoip1 dnsutils libgssapi-krb5-2 qtcore4-l10n mscompress libv4l-0 liblivemedia23
apt-get purge tcl8.6 wamerican ubiquity-casper libpeas-common libavc1394-0 libgpg-error0
apt-get purge libdbusmenu-glib4 tumbler-common libwebkitgtk-3.0-common iw libxapian22
apt-get purge install-info libgtksourceview-3.0-common libcrack2 ssl-cert dctrl-tools liba52-0.7.4
apt-get purge openssl libcloog-isl4 lvm2
apt-get purge libutempter0 libexo-helpers sgml-base libopenal-data manpages-dev
apt-get purge libbonobo2-common transmission-common pidgin-data usb-modeswitch libxcb-icccm4 libwnck-3-common gconf2-common
apt-get purge libsnmp-base gawk linux-libc-dev libthai-data
apt-get purge libcap2-bin libdrm-radeon1 libmx-common libwebkitgtk-1.0-common libburn4 os-prober libapt-inst1.5 gsfonts fonts*
apt-get purge libpwquality-common manpages ed libck-connector0 gimp-data poppler-data xfdesktop4-data fortunes-husse lockfile-progs
apt-get purge xfce*
apt-get purge rdate libwacom-common libpulsedsp libjpeg-turbo-progs liblvm2app2.2 genisoimage hdparm
apt-get purge tcpdump libsecret-common libpulse0 lshw libbasicusageenvironment0 guile-2.0-libs watershed
apt-get purge radeontool samba-common libproxy-tools uuid-runtime libpaper-utils uno-libs3
apt-get purge libnm-gtk-common libexo-common plymouth-theme-ubuntu-text rtkit x11-common wireless-regdb xdg-utils libgs9-common
apt-get purge plymouth-theme-ubuntu-text rtkit x11-common wireless-regdb xdg-utils libgs9-common libnl-genl-3-200
apt-get purge libnm-gtk-common libexo-common plymouth-theme-ubuntu-text rtkit libgs9-common
apt-get purge wireless-regdb
apt-get purge xdg-utils
apt-get purge xdg*
apt-get purge samba*
apt-get purge gnome*
apt-get purge systemd*
apt-get purge codec*
apt-get autoremove
apt-get purge xserv*
apt-get purge mplayer*
apt-get purge totem*
apt-get purge vlc*
apt-get purge xfce4*
apt-get purge jfsutils kbd krb5-locales libavahi-core7:i386 libavahi-common3:i386
apt-get purge libbonoboui2-common libcgmanager0:i386
apt-get purge libclucene-contribs1:i386 libclucene-contribs1:i386 libcolamd2.8.0:i386 libcrystalhd3:i386 libdc1394-22:i386
apt-get purge libboost-iostreams1.54.0:i386
apt-get purge libdevmapper-event1.02.1:i386 libdjvulibre21:i386 libdrm-intel1:i386 libdrm-nouveau2:i386 libdvdread4:i386
apt-get purge libmpeg2encpp-2.1-0 libmpfr4:i386 libmpg123-0:i386 libnetfilter-conntrack3:i386
apt-get purge libopencore-amrnb0:i386 libroken18-heimdal:i386 libschroedinger-1.0-0:i386 libwavpack1:i386 libx11-xcb1:i386
apt-get purge linux-headers-3.13.0-37 linux-sound-base mlocate
apt-get purge openjdk-7-jre-lib p11-kit-modules:i386 plymouth qtchooser thunar-data toshset
apt-get purge openjdk-7-jre-lib p11-kit-modules:i386 qtchooser thunar-data toshset
apt-get purge usb-modeswitch-data vbetool wodim x11-common xbitmaps xkb-data
apt-get autoremove
apt-get -f install
apt-get install squashfs-tools ntfs-3g


To autologin as root you need to change one line after extracting initrd.lz in /etc/casper.conf (the file is inside initrd.lz).
It is best to do this first in different linux and then reboot with the modded initrd.lz after creating the root password.
You need to install first p7zip-full (for example in Debian based system using apt-get):
Code:
apt-get install p7zip-full

Then copy initrd.lz in /casper/init/ and create subfolder (/casper/init/1 for example). Change to /casper/init/1:
Code:
cd /path-to/casper/init/1 #note you should have initrd.lz inside /path-to/casper/init
7z e -so ../initrd.lz | cpio -id

initrd.lz is extracted inside /path-to/casper/init/1

Open /path-to/casper/init/1/etc/casper.conf with text editor and change:
Code:
export USERNAME="mint"

to:
Code:
export USERNAME="root"

and rebuild the initrd.lz (using xz compression):
Code:
cd /path-to/casper/init/1
find . -print | cpio -o -H newc 2>/dev/null | xz -f --extreme --check=crc32 > ../initrd-casper.xz

Rename the original initrd.lz and use initrd-casper.xz instead (rename it to initrd.lz if you like to use the same boot code example above).
Boot the system and you should autologin as root to console (using the same persistent casper-rw partition after removing the packages) with working wired internet connection (for wireless you will have to try to find some solution using command line only).
Now it is time to remaster the system using DebianDog cli script modded to work with Linux Mint (it creates zero-size files in /usr/share/doc, info and man but you can remove this part if you like to keep them):
Code:
#!/bin/bash

# Edited for command line only tool from original RemasterDog, remaster script for DebianDog by Fred (fredx181)

echo "Run this scripts as root or using sudo."
echo "Open the script with text editor if you like to change the working directory drive DEST="
echo "It is set to use the boot partition mounted as /cdrom. It will be remounted in RW mode."
echo "The script will start copying files in 60 seconds. There will be prompt to create squashfs module."
sleep 60

[ "`whoami`" != "root" ] && exec gsu ${0}

DEST="/cdrom"
mount -o remount,rw $DEST
wait

mkdir $DEST/work-dir
echo -n "Copying files in $DEST/work-dir... Please, wait..."
rsync -a / $DEST/work-dir/ --exclude=/{cdrom,mnt,proc,sys,media,run,tmp,rofs,lost+found}

mkdir -p $DEST/work-dir/{proc,run,mnt,media,sys,tmp}
chmod a=rwx,o+t $DEST/work-dir/tmp
echo ""

echo -n "Cleaning..."
rm -f $DEST/work-dir/var/lib/alsa/asound.state
rm -f $DEST/work-dir/root/.bash_history
rm -f $DEST/work-dir/root/.xsession-errors
rm -rf $DEST/work-dir/root/.cache
rm -rf $DEST/work-dir/root/.thumbnails
rm -f $DEST/work-dir/etc/blkid-cache
rm -f $DEST/work-dir/etc/resolv.conf
rm -rf $DEST/work-dir/etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent*
rm -f $DEST/work-dir/var/lib/dhcp/dhclient.eth0.leases
rm -f $DEST/work-dir/var/lib/dhcpcd/*.lease
rm -fr $DEST/work-dir/var/lib/aptitude/*
echo ""

ls $DEST/work-dir/var/lib/apt/lists | grep -v "lock" | grep -v "partial" | xargs -i rm $DEST/work-dir/var/lib/apt/lists/{} ;

ls $DEST/work-dir/var/cache/apt/archives | grep -v "lock" | grep -v "partial" | xargs -i rm $DEST/work-dir/var/cache/apt/archives/{} ;

ls $DEST/work-dir/var/cache/apt | grep -v "archives" | xargs -i rm $DEST/work-dir/var/cache/apt/{} ;
rm -f $DEST/work-dir/var/log/* 2> /dev/null

cd $DEST/work-dir

zerosize() {
  find $* | while read file; do
    echo -n "."
    rm -f $file
    touch $file
  done
}

echo -n "Zerosizing man, doc, info..."
    zerosize usr/share/doc -type f -size +1c
    zerosize usr/share/doc -type l

    zerosize usr/share/man -type f -size +1c
    zerosize usr/share/man -type l


    zerosize usr/share/info -type f -size +1c
    zerosize usr/share/info -type l

    zerosize usr/share/gnome/help -type f -size +1c
    zerosize usr/share/gnome/help -type l

    zerosize usr/share/gtk-doc -type f -size +1c
    zerosize usr/share/gtk-doc -type l
echo ""

    chown -R man:root usr/share/man

cd $DEST

echo ###
echo "Now you can clean manually $DEST/work-dir if you like."
echo "After that type 1 and press Enter to continue."
echo ###
echo "1)Type 1 and press Enter to continue."
echo ###

read n
case $n in
    1) mksquashfs $DEST/work-dir $DEST/work-dir.squashfs -comp xz -b 512k -Xbcj x86 ;;
esac


echo ###
echo "Do you want to delete $DEST/work-dir?"
echo ###
echo "1)Type 1 YES - delete $DEST/work-dir."
echo "2)Type 2 NO and exit."
echo ###
echo "Type the number and press Enter."
echo ###

read n
case $n in
    1) rm -rf $DEST/work-dir;;
    2) exit;;
esac



Testing example remastered module (xz compressed without xorg) after the procedure above + initrd.lz (modded to autologin as root) and vmlinuz for frugal install you can download from here.
Added /etc/apt/apt.conf to prevent installing recommended packages.
The remastering script is included and can be started from terminal or console by typing:
Code:
/opt/bin/remaster-mint-cli

I will not update or support this experiment further. It is only testing example how to make Linux Mint (or Ubuntu) smaller and rebuild it as you wish.
Maybe this information will help a little with Mintpup project. Anyone ineterested from Linux Mint puppifying should read the updates from wanderer here:
http://www.murga-linux.com/puppy/viewtopic.php?t=99909

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mcewanw

Joined: 16 Aug 2007
Posts: 3194
Location: New Zealand

PostPosted: Fri 31 Jul 2015, 06:54    Post subject:  

Hi Toni,

After reading your post above, I modified initrd.lz to make root the login user rather than mint. I was hoping that would allow full version of xfce live frugal-installed Linux Mint (I have the 64bit 17.2 version) itself to autologin to a root GUI (just as an experiment). Unfortunately, I haven't managed to get that to work. I have managed to get to login screen and been able to login to a root GUI from there (had to use System -> Login Display to allow root login as far as I recall).

Have you managed to get full live frugal-installed xfce Linux Mint (whatever version you have) to autologin as root user into Desktop and if so, how?

Cheers, William

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saintless


Joined: 11 Jun 2011
Posts: 3882
Location: Bulgaria

PostPosted: Fri 31 Jul 2015, 08:04    Post subject:  

Hi William.
My experiment was with save partition with most packages and xorg removed already. I didn't test the modded initrd.lz with fresh frugal install official Mint but I'm sure the problem is in your description:
mcewanw wrote:
(had to use System -> Login Display to allow root login as far as I recall).

i guess you have to deactivate the display manager or install different one.
If the tty*.conf files in /etc/init have root inside, then the changed initrd.lz does the job. The problem is in the included display manager.

Toni

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mcewanw

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PostPosted: Fri 31 Jul 2015, 09:03    Post subject:  

Thanks Toni,

I had a feeling it might be MDM display manager related. I'm not in official Linux Mint just now, but I don't think it had an /etc/init directory with tty confs. I do notice that in MintPup - is that something you added to use sysinitv and autologin lines in the tty conf files?

William

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saintless


Joined: 11 Jun 2011
Posts: 3882
Location: Bulgaria

PostPosted: Fri 31 Jul 2015, 09:12    Post subject:  

I didn't add any /etc/init files.
I don't have the original LinuxMint image anymore but it should have the tty* files in /etc/init. They are part of upstart init and I see posts in Linux Mint forum about the same files:
http://forums.linuxmint.com/viewtopic.php?p=1028444#p1028444

Toni

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mcewanw

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PostPosted: Fri 31 Jul 2015, 09:19    Post subject:  

Hello Toni

Yes, I've now logged into official Linux Mint and the /etc/init/tty*.conf files are there afterall.

Thanks. I'll try to deactive MDM and see if that makes the difference. Not that it matters - I think I would just leave things as it is with official Linux Mint. I'm only really looking at it because my partner needs 64bit version to use viber.

I had a quick look at Porteus 64bit initrd.xz and it seems to be quite a bit different than the 32bit one (no long list of kernel modules being loaded in for loop, for example and of course the official Porteus initrd doesn't have 'porteus' changed to 'live' or 'casper' in MintPup case).

William

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PostPosted: Sun 03 Apr 2016, 16:24    Post subject: FEDORA LIVE  

Just a few notes for Keisha, William and anyone else interested to work on Fedora puppy lookalike system.
Fedora Live CD is much different from Debian or Ubuntu but after some reading I think it shouldn't be so hard to make it smaller and boot it as frugal install with persistence and some simple remastering script.
This iso for example is a good base for testing:
Fedora-Live-SoaS-i686-23-10.iso - 676 Mb
https://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/releases/23/Live/i386/Fedora-Live-SoaS-i686-23-10.iso
Inside the iso there is as script livecd-iso-to-disk to make bootable usb with persistence from the iso. It works for USB (and for hard drive partition if you make it bootable first), but it is not so hard to make frugal install manually if you have grub or grub4dos already installed.
How to use livecd-iso-to-disk script with persistence save file read here:
https://docs.fedoraproject.org/en-US/Fedora/10/html/Release_Notes/sn-Live_USB_persistence.html

How to make frugal install with persistence manually:
Download the iso and extract LiveOS folder at top of ext partition (probably works with vfat and maybe ntfs but I can't confirm this without testing). In my case the partition is sda1 mounted as /mnt/sda1 and I use grub4dos.
Then go inside /mnt/sda1/LiveOS and copy there /isolinux/initrd0.img and /isolinux/vmlinuz0 from Fedora live cd.
Lets make save file from command line:
Code:
dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/sda1/LiveOS/overlay-LIVE count=150 bs=1M

Note it doesn't contain any filesystem. Fedora persistence works different using Device mapper snapshots - saving block device/sectors.
count=150 is for 150Mb save file which should be fine for removing programs only. Increase the size to count=2000 (2Gb) or more if you are going to install programs.
It is important to add label LIVE to /dev/sda1 (mounted as /mnt/sda1) or persistence will not work:
Code:
e2label /dev/sda1 LIVE
e2label /dev/sda1
LIVE

Get the UUID of /dev/sda1:
Code:
blkid
/dev/sda1: UUID="2bfd8e4b-7ffc-485c-a07f-546d50b4bce5" TYPE="ext3" LABEL="LIVE"

Rename the save file /mnt/sda1/LiveOS/overlay-LIVE to /mnt/sda1/LiveOS/overlay-LIVE-2bfd8e4b-7ffc-485c-a07f-546d50b4bce5
Note it is 2bfd8e4b-7ffc-485c-a07f-546d50b4bce5 for me but it will be different for you. Change it with the correct uuid number.

This is what you should have in /mnt/sda1/LiveOS now:
Code:
root@debian:~# ls /mnt/sda1/LiveOS
livecd-iso-to-disk         squashfs.img osmin.img     vmlinuz0    initrd0.img     overlay-LIVE-2bfd8e4b-7ffc-485c-a07f-546d50b4bce5

I'm not sure you need osmin.img but it is very small file anyway and it is better to keep it.
Now it is time to add menu entry in grub4dos menu.lst (correct the UUID and the (hd0,0) part with yours):
Code:
title FEDORA-LIVE sda1 persistence in /LiveOS/
root=(hd0,0)
kernel /LiveOS/vmlinuz0 root=live:UUID=2bfd8e4b-7ffc-485c-a07f-546d50b4bce5 rootfstype=ext3 rw rd.live.image rd.live.overlay=UUID=2bfd8e4b-7ffc-485c-a07f-546d50b4bce5 quiet rhgb rd.luks=0 rd.md=0 rd.dm=0
initrd /LiveOS/initrd0.img

Reboot and boot Fedora frugal with persistence in /mnt/sda1/LiveOS/overlay-LIBE-2bfd8e4b-7ffc-485c-a07f-546d50b4bce5 save file.
When the display manager appears press Ctrl+Alt+F2 and login there from command line as root or as liveuser - no password needed for both, just press enter to login. Probably you can login from the display manager but Xorg doesn't work on my old machine and I can't even see the login prompt so I have to use console login.
Your boot partition /dev/sda1 is mounted as /run/initramfs/live
Now you can start removing programs with dnf. This is a good start to make the base smaller without xorg and start building fresh base after that:
Code:
sudo dnf remove xinit

Then get a text file with the installed programs:
Code:
dnf list installed > /list.txt

Read the installed packages with nano:
Code:
nano /list.txt

And try to remove all you don't need without breaking the network connection.
You can install programs with:
Code:
dnf update
dnf install package-name

Search packages with:
Code:
dnf search package-name

I'm sure there are many other options. Use "dnf --help" to learn all.

It will take you some time but it shouldn't be too difficult to make smaller base without xorg and simple script for remastering the system in smaller squashfs using rsync command doing some cleaning and zerosizing at the same time.

Some important notes about the way Fedora live works. The initrd img file is builded with dracut (I know nothing about it and can't even extract the content yet) and the persistence is managed by DM_snapshot. The save file doesn't have file system as you can see from the above dd command.
DM snapshot operates on block device/sector level (not on file system level). This means you can't mount the save file and you can't read or change its content. This save file will work only with one squashfs system module - in our example this is - /mnt/sda1/LiveOS/squashfs.img If you change the module trying to use the same save file probably the boot will crash. So after remastering the system in new module you have to start with new made save file for the new remastered module.
On the other hand squashfs.img containes /LiveOS folder with 4Gb ext3fs.img inside which containes the actual file system.
I might be wrong but Fedora Live boots this way:
After loading squashfs.img the system mounts the included inside ext3fs.img attaching loop device to it and second loop devise for the save file. Then the system combines the two devices creating copy-on-write device in /dev/mapper/ and mounts this device RW in some mount point. This is how I understand the process from reading information about DM snapshot but I might be wrong.

It seems complicated way to run live cd with persistence but this is the official Fedora way and without knowing enough about the system structure this is what you should use first to create smaller base.

Then you can try to use overlayfs or to build aufs or unionfs module and to adapt some more flexible way to boot the system (as live-boot or porteus-boot or puppy-boot...). In general live-boot and porteus-boot will start Fedora main module with kernel from Debian Jessie if you make some changes and after making new squashfs module from ext3fs.img content. It works from limited testing but i'm sure a lot of problems will come later running Fedora live with different kernel or patched kernel.

Maybe I will update this thread with more information later but I can't promise anything. Just posting my one day experience with Fedora live.

Edit: Just few links for testing later. Seems Fedora live cd now can use overlayfs with some dracut patches which sounds much better:
https://github.com/FGrose/dracut/commit/e4a0c816b447ce221664ecaa91d2d984df147abc
https://github.com/dracutdevs/dracut/issues/104#issuecomment-160260094
https://github.com/FGrose/livecd-tools/blob/litd/tools/livecd-iso-to-disk

Toni

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mcewanw

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PostPosted: Sun 03 Apr 2016, 19:11    Post subject:  

Hi Toni,

In my own quick read yesterday I also obtained the impression that Fedora live methodology was somewhat limiting. Seemed like the save file needed to be quite large and would erode away slowly during writes and deletions. I can't say I understand how its save file works. I should try it out to follow on from your post, but I've currently started out on a programming project I've put off for over a year and any distraction would probably result in me never getting on with that! Nevertheless I am tempted to be distracted and hopefully Keisha will be.

Many Thanks,

William

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Keisha

Joined: 18 Nov 2014
Posts: 449

PostPosted: Mon 04 Apr 2016, 03:10    Post subject:  

Thanks Toni.

I doubt I will create the Puppified Fedora, but...maybe.

You and Fred might want to look at my post at
http://murga-linux.com/puppy/viewtopic.php?p=897285#897285

about a rox-filer Trash applet from November 2015 which creates good xdg trash folder entries.

I find it extremely useful in a mixed rox-filer + thunar environment.

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PostPosted: Mon 04 Apr 2016, 03:28    Post subject:  

Keisha wrote:
You and Fred might want to look at my post at
http://murga-linux.com/puppy/viewtopic.php?p=897285#897285

Link posted in DD-Jessie thread, thanks.
My previous post updated with links how to use overlayfs instead dm_snapshot in Fedora Live and it sounds better.

Toni

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saintless


Joined: 11 Jun 2011
Posts: 3882
Location: Bulgaria

PostPosted: Sun 24 Apr 2016, 11:45    Post subject:  

The Fedora live experiment ends here for me for now:
http://kazzascorner.com.au/saintless/Experimental/Fedora-PRA/
https://github.com/MintPup/FedoraPup
Only for advanced users who can setup the system from command line and who like to experiment with Fedora frugal with options to save in file or directory using PRA kernel and working dnf package manager. Some boot messages are in Russian but I prefer to use PRA boot scripts untouched.
Make sure to read this before trying to test the Fedora-PRA setup.

Edit: Just to make it clear from the start:
Fedora boots with systemd.

Toni

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Keisha

Joined: 18 Nov 2014
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PostPosted: Sun 24 Apr 2016, 16:37    Post subject:  

Smile Duly noted.
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Keisha

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PostPosted: Sun 24 Apr 2016, 16:55    Post subject:  

...and downloaded Wink
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