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 Forum index » House Training » Users ( For the regulars )
TestDisk: Flash Drive="CHS and LBA don't match" [SOLVED]
Moderators: Flash, Ian, JohnMurga
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Author Message
npierce

Joined: 28 Dec 2009
Posts: 858

PostPosted: Fri 01 Mar 2013, 13:27    Post subject:  

Sylvander wrote:
Hey, I notice I reported in the title, that it was TestDisk that gave that report. Very Happy

Oh, ya. Sorry about that -- time I got some new glasses! Smile

Sylvander wrote:
I'd need to attempt to retrace my steps and see if I encounter that message again.
Is that really necessary?

No. At least it is not a priority right now. We have something bigger to chase.

Sylvander wrote:
Then entered w to write, and the console closed.
Should it do that?

Oh dear, no. It should print some messages and exit back to the command prompt, like it did for you on Tuesday.
Sylvander wrote:
Code:
Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
#

But it shouldn't close the terminal window.

(Note: if you run fdisk from the menu, it will close the window. To see the messages it prints before it exits, it needs to be run from a terminal window (e.g., urxvt).)

It seems to me I remember that w would sometimes not exit gracefully. Since it worked for you on Tuesday, perhaps its failure today was a fluke. Probably not, but it might be worth trying to change the type one more time. I know this is probably getting a bit tedious, but if you can get it to work, it might be easier than trying other things.

I'm going to dig up a flash drive and see if I have similar problems trying to change its partition table.

Sylvander wrote:
Would that write only take effect after a reboot WITH SAVE of the session changes?
I notice that when I re-run "System->Pdisk->fdisk" on sdb1, and enter the command p, the Id=b and System=w95 FAT32!

The write, if it had worked, would write to the flash drive. So it should be readable immediately -- no save to the save file is necessary.

Sylvander wrote:
4. "The CHS values on your partition table do not agree with the LBA values.
Might we attempt to change so as to correct the CHS values?
Can you give me instructions to follow?

That is a possibility, although it is a little more complicated. For instance, there should be a backup partition table somewhere which also would need to be changed, so I'll have to go see where that lives.

I'll dig up a flash drive and do some experiments. In the meantime, you might try using fdisk once more to change the partition type, if you've not yet run out of patience with fdisk. Smile If it works it could save us some time.
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Semme

Joined: 07 Aug 2011
Posts: 3862
Location: World_Hub

PostPosted: Fri 01 Mar 2013, 15:52    Post subject:  

NPierce- my 1g SanDisk Cruzer. Using fdisk alone, 5.2.8 has no problem with the mismatch.
Code:
Disk /dev/sdb: 1027 MB, 1027416576 bytes
32 heads, 62 sectors/track, 1011 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 1984 * 512 = 1015808 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

Device     Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1   *           2         530      524288   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sdb2             530        1012      478024+  83  Linux
Partition 2 does not end on cylinder boundary.

Code:
00000000  80 01 03 01 83 11 a2 11  00 08 00 00 00 00 10 00  |................|
00000010  00 11 a3 11 83 0d eb f3  00 08 10 00 91 96 0e 00  |................|
00000020  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
*
00000040

These from my 2g Cruzer >> Id=c..
Code:
Disk /dev/sdb: 2055 MB, 2055021056 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 249 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

Device  Boot     Start    End     Blocks      Id  System
/dev/sdb1        1        250     2006825     c   W95 FAT32 (LBA)
Partition 1 has different physical/logical endings:
     phys=(248, 254, 63) logical=(249, 214, 46)

Code:
00000000  00 01 01 00 0c fe 3f f8  3f 00 00 00 52 3e 3d 00  |......?.?...R>=.|
00000010  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
*
00000040

Last edited by Semme on Fri 01 Mar 2013, 16:21; edited 2 times in total
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Sylvander

Joined: 15 Dec 2008
Posts: 3444
Location: West Lothian, Scotland, UK

PostPosted: Fri 01 Mar 2013, 16:11    Post subject:  

npierce:
1. "it needs to be run from a terminal window"
Did that, and used the write command [w], and the console window didn't close.
Instead, it gave the following [also see the end of the results of the p command prior to it]:
Code:
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048     1972223      985088    c  W95 FAT32 (LBA)

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

WARNING: If you have created or modified any DOS 6.x
partitions, please see the fdisk manual page for additional
information.
Syncing disks.
#

Will now close the console window [NOT using q command prior to close], re-open it, enter the p command.
Oh dear, here's what I see:
Code:
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048     1972223      985088    b  W95 FAT32


2. "it might be worth trying to change the type one more time. I know this is probably getting a bit tedious, but if you can get it to work, it might be easier than trying other things"
I find this interesting, not tedious at all [not yet anyway].
This is certainly good practise in using commands in a terminal.
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npierce

Joined: 28 Dec 2009
Posts: 858

PostPosted: Fri 01 Mar 2013, 16:39    Post subject:  

Semme,

Thanks for the report. That's good to know. Yes, since your partitions are Linux partitions, and since Linux always uses LBA, I would expect that the CHS fields are ignored.

In fact, I suspect that mount may also ignore the CHS fields even though it is mounting a type b (not-LBA) FAT partition. It is likely that the TestDisk program is simply more critical, and reported that inconsistency, since it might make the drive unusable on an old MS-DOS system.

If so, and if mount really doesn't care about the CHS fields, then the problem is elsewhere. But with few other clues, it was worth investigating the TestDisk error message. And it would be nice if simply (or not so simply, as this case seems to be) changing to type c made mount happy.

I'm hoping that mount or the kernel may provide a more specific error message in the dmesg log. Read on . . .

----------------------------------------------------------------

Sylvander,

Sylvander wrote:
Oh dear, here's what I see:
Code:
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048     1972223      985088    b  W95 FAT32

Oh dear.

Do you know if this is one of those flash drives that have some kind of software or hardware (switch) write protection? If so, perhaps that has been confused somehow.

I'm hoping mount or the kernel may tell us more.

Running these commands, in this order, might provide enlightening output:
Code:
guess_fstype /dev/sdb1
mkdir -p /mnt/sdb1
mount -t vfat /dev/sdb1 /mnt/sdb1
dmesg | tail -9

I know you already provided the output of mount. But I'm asking you to run it again because I would like to see if it writes anything to the dmesg log.

I've been playing with an old 8 GB Toshiba TransMemory flash drive. Currently, it has a type c partition at /dev/sdb1 and a type 83 (Linux) partition at /dev/sdb2. I have repeatedly been able to change partition 1 from type c to type b, remove the drive, plug it in again, verify that the type really changed with "fdisk -l /dev/sdb", and change it back again. So it can be done -- at least with my flash drive, and using the version of fdisk from util-linux-ng 2.18, which came with Racy 5.2.2.

By the way, if you still have that copy of testdisk.log that you mentioned in your first post, I'd be glad to take a look at it if you gzip it and add it as an attachment -- I'm assuming it may be too long to just insert as text. You probably know how to gzip a file, but if not, this should do it. (This assumes that it is in your /root/ directory, if not adjust accordingly.):
Code:
gzip /root/testdisk.log

That's not a big priority, and it might not have anything useful in it, but if you have the time to attach it, it just might provide a clue.

Sylvander wrote:
I find this interesting, not tedious at all [not yet anyway].

Oh good.
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npierce

Joined: 28 Dec 2009
Posts: 858

PostPosted: Fri 01 Mar 2013, 16:48    Post subject:  

Sylvander,

I forgot to ask: Assuming that there is an LED on your flash drive, does it blink just after you use the write command in fdisk? Mine does.
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Semme

Joined: 07 Aug 2011
Posts: 3862
Location: World_Hub

PostPosted: Fri 01 Mar 2013, 19:50    Post subject:  

While we're in Q & A.. This drive come with Store 'n' Go or V-Safe software (sitting inside the opening 2048 sectors)?
Last edited by Semme on Sun 03 Mar 2013, 09:18; edited 1 time in total
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amigo

Joined: 02 Apr 2007
Posts: 2246

PostPosted: Sat 02 Mar 2013, 03:21    Post subject:  

So, try again to manually format the drive. Make sure it is unmounted and from the terminal run:
mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdb1
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Sylvander

Joined: 15 Dec 2008
Posts: 3444
Location: West Lothian, Scotland, UK

PostPosted: Sat 02 Mar 2013, 08:11    Post subject:  

npierce:
1. "Do you know if this is one of those flash drives that have some kind of software or hardware (switch) write protection?"
I'm certain theres none.
Neither software on the drive, nor any hardware switch/protection; just a plain drive.

2. "Running these commands, in this order, might provide enlightening output:"
I'll try those now and report back.
This is what is given:
Code:
# guess_fstype /dev/sdb1
unknown
# mkdir -p /mnt/sdb1
# mount -t vfat /dev/sdb1 /mnt/sdb1
mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on /dev/sdb1,
       missing codepage or helper program, or other error
       In some cases useful info is found in syslog - try
       dmesg | tail  or so

# dmesg | tail -9
[ 5420.484714] sd 4:0:0:0: [sdb] Assuming drive cache: write through
[ 5420.489795] sd 4:0:0:0: [sdb] Asking for cache data failed
[ 5420.489799] sd 4:0:0:0: [sdb] Assuming drive cache: write through
[ 5420.600103]  sdb: sdb1
[ 5420.603798] sd 4:0:0:0: [sdb] Asking for cache data failed
[ 5420.603801] sd 4:0:0:0: [sdb] Assuming drive cache: write through
[ 5420.603804] sd 4:0:0:0: [sdb] Attached SCSI removable disk
[ 5516.321762] FAT-fs (sdb1): bogus number of reserved sectors
[ 5516.321766] FAT-fs (sdb1): Can't find a valid FAT filesystem
#



3. "I have repeatedly been able to change partition 1 from type c to type b, remove the drive, plug it in again, verify that the type really changed with "fdisk -l /dev/sdb", and change it back again."
I haven't been unplugging and re-plugging the Flash Drive.
Might this be why all my efforts come to naught?

4. "if you still have that copy of testdisk.log that you mentioned in your first post, I'd be glad to take a look at it if you gzip it and add it as an attachment"
I have a copy of the file saved to a different folder on the 24th Feb...
Then I appended additional info on the 27th.
I've gzip'd the later version OK.
Not sure if a .gz file will attach, but will try it.
Do I need to change the extension to txt to attach?
Apparently not. Very Happy
It attached OK.
I was then able to download, unzip, and read OK.

5. "Assuming that there is an LED on your flash drive, does it blink just after you use the write command in fdisk?"
No, it doesn't.
Not a good sign, eh?
It blinks when I 1st plug it in, as the Puppy detects it [and then the Puppy displays its icon on the desktop].

6. "This drive come with Store 'n' Go or V-Safe software (sitting inside the opening 2048 bytes)?"
I believe it does NOT.
Will keep on the lookout for that.
I usually do keep a watch for stuff like that, and haven't seen any sign of it.

amigo:
7. "try again to manually format the drive. Make sure it is unmounted and from the terminal run:
mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdb1
"
Done.
Here's what I get:
Code:
# mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdb1
mkdosfs 3.0.11 (24 Dec 2010)
#
testdisk.log.gz
Description 
gz

 Download 
Filename  testdisk.log.gz 
Filesize  1.58 KB 
Downloaded  97 Time(s) 
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Semme

Joined: 07 Aug 2011
Posts: 3862
Location: World_Hub

PostPosted: Sat 02 Mar 2013, 09:31    Post subject:  

Ya think? Dwnlds here! Is your FalconFour system enough?
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Sylvander

Joined: 15 Dec 2008
Posts: 3444
Location: West Lothian, Scotland, UK

PostPosted: Sat 02 Mar 2013, 11:24    Post subject:  

Not sure what you mean Semme. Confused

My wife had this Verbatim Flash Drive on her keychain given her by someone at her workplace, for use in her employment, but she never used it, so gave it to me.

I'm likely to have written zeros to the partition, then re-partitioned and re-formatted.
Was probably used as a bootable Puppy drive...
And then for file storage.
Eventually I either deleted all of the partition contents or wrote zeros or random patterns to the partition.
It always worked well.

Never was any sign of anything on the drive.
If there had been, I'd have eliminated it.
I don't like such stuff.

Semme:
You suggested in a PM [why don't you do such stuff here?], that I have another [and more careful] attempt at a fix using TestDisk, and that seems like a good idea to me.
Anyone think it's not a good idea, or other things should be tried first?
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Semme

Joined: 07 Aug 2011
Posts: 3862
Location: World_Hub

PostPosted: Sat 02 Mar 2013, 12:03    Post subject:  

*For the sake of get'n you on your way, I'm gonna overlook the privacy breach.

==

fdisk the drive again. Delete the sole partition, then write the op. Remove, wait a few seconds, reinsert.

Pup probably won't see it now, but it's there along with your other partitions.
Code:
fdisk -l

This should be empty:
Code:
Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System

And the total readout after disk /dev/sdb:?

Whether empty or not, run this:
Code:
fsck /dev/sdb

The response?

==

No quoted reply- simple answers.

We can all follow..

Last edited by Semme on Sat 02 Mar 2013, 17:56; edited 1 time in total
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Sylvander

Joined: 15 Dec 2008
Posts: 3444
Location: West Lothian, Scotland, UK

PostPosted: Sat 02 Mar 2013, 15:57    Post subject:  

Semme:
1. "fdisk the drive again. Delete the sole partition, then write the op."
Treat me like a beginner.
I need explicit instructions/commands on how to do this, otherwise I'm likely to get it wrong.
What's an op?
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Semme

Joined: 07 Aug 2011
Posts: 3862
Location: World_Hub

PostPosted: Sat 02 Mar 2013, 16:34    Post subject:  

Unless switches are included, this type of opening never changes.
Code:
fdisk /dev/sdb

For giggles, hit: m
Code:
Command action
   a   toggle a bootable flag
   b   edit bsd disklabel
   c   toggle the dos compatibility flag
   d   delete a partition
   l   list known partition types
   m   print this menu
   n   add a new partition
   o   create a new empty DOS partition table
   p   print the partition table
   q   quit without saving changes
   s   create a new empty Sun disklabel
   t   change a partition's system id
   u   change display/entry units
   v   verify the partition table
   w   write table to disk and exit
   x   extra functionality (experts only)

ALWAYS hit "m" to start- so you're aware of your options.

After each (op)eration, hit: p

This allows you to view the layout and track your work.

Now we wanna (d)elete a partition, right? Right.

Since there seems to be only one partition, it'll probably submit a: 1

Go ahead: d

Whadda we wanna see? That's right- the (p)artition table again.

It's: p

If anything remains, again hit: d

Once clear, (w)rite the (op)erations to disk: w

Easy when you've spent some time with it.
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npierce

Joined: 28 Dec 2009
Posts: 858

PostPosted: Sun 03 Mar 2013, 01:27    Post subject:  

Sylvander wrote:
Code:
# dmesg | tail -9
. . .
[ 5516.321762] FAT-fs (sdb1): bogus number of reserved sectors
[ 5516.321766] FAT-fs (sdb1): Can't find a valid FAT filesystem

OK, so this is what mount is choking on: "bogus number of reserved sectors". If it is looking at the correct sector (by using the LBA fields, not the CHS fields) then this would indicate a formatting error, since the number of reserved sectors would be written to the first sector (the "boot sector") of the partition by the utility that created the FAT filesystem (mkdosfs).

I see that, last Sunday, TestDisk reported the number of reserved sectors (and all of the other values it found in the boot sector) as zero, which is certainly wrong. This was after you used gparted to re-format the partition and it failed, so its not too surprising that the boot sector was incorrect.

Based on reports from Monsie who "had problems with gparted in the past when it came to formatting a disk with Windows file systems," and from proebler's experience "where gparted could no longer be used to reformat a flash drive," this could certainly be attributed to a failing of gparted. Or, of course, it could be attributed to a failing of the flash drive itself.

I noticed that when you first tried to format it with gparted, you had success, and after you started having problems, gparted then failed to format successfully, as it had done previously. That sounds ominous.

But you formatted it again on Tuesday, using mkfs.vfat (which I think is usually a symlink to mkdosfs), and then again on Thursday, using mkdosfs, so good values should have been written to it. Unfortunately, the error message that was logged when you tried to mount the partition doesn't tell us the actual value that it considered bogus.

And my guess is that there are probably other bogus numbers, the "reserved sectors" value was just the first one encountered, so the mount operation quit when it saw that.

If you haven't yet tired of trying new things, you could try this command so we can see what's currently in the first half of your boot sector:
Code:
dd if=/dev/sdb1 bs=256 skip=4096 count=1 2>/dev/null | hexdump -C

[CORRECTION, Mar-04: Sorry, the above command is wrong. The correct command is:
Code:
dd if=/dev/sdb bs=256 skip=4096 count=1 2>/dev/null | hexdump -C

The skip offset I gave was from the start of the drive, not the partition, so I should have said "if=/dev/sda".]

Then to see what is in the first half of the sector that the CHS start field points to, in case mkdosfs believed the CHS numbers and put the boot sector there:
Code:
dd if=/dev/sdb1 bs=256 skip=640 count=1 2>/dev/null | hexdump -C

[CORRECTION, Mar-04: Sorry, the above command is also wrong. The correct command is:
Code:
dd if=/dev/sdb bs=256 skip=640 count=1 2>/dev/null | hexdump -C

The skip offset I gave was from the start of the drive, not the partition, so I should have said "if=/dev/sdb".]

Note that this time if=/dev/sdb1 since we are looking at the partition, unlike the other day when we were looking at the drive so it was if=/dev/sdb.

[CORRECTION, Mar-04: So the above paragraph is also wrong. Normally we would use /dev/sdb1 to read from the partition. But since your partition table has problems I wanted the command to ignore it, and use the desired offsets from the start of the drive, so I should have said "if=/dev/sdb". I thought I'd tested the command, but somehow I managed to confuse things. Sorry about that. (See my latest post: http://www.murga-linux.com/puppy/viewtopic.php?p=689480#689480).]

The bs=256 lets us deal in half-sectors, and the LBA start field indicates that the first sector of the partition is at sector 2048 on the drive, so skip=4096 (half-sectors).

Likewise, the incorrect CHS start field indicates that the first sector of the partition is at sector 320, so skip=640 (half-sectors).

Sylvander wrote:
I haven't been unplugging and re-plugging the Flash Drive.
Might this be why all my efforts come to naught?
.
No. Running "fdisk -l /dev/sdb" immediately after writing the partition table to the drive would show any changes you made if the write had worked. I only removed and reinserted my drive to be sure that the changes I saw were really getting written to the drive, and not just sitting in a buffer in RAM somewhere.


Thanks for attaching the TestDisk.log file. As well as the "CHS and LBA don't match" problem (for both "heads/cylinder" and "sect/track"), it showed (as mentioned above) that the boot sector of the partition wasn't created correctly.

Sylvander wrote:
5. "Assuming that there is an LED on your flash drive, does it blink just after you use the write command in fdisk?"
No, it doesn't.
Not a good sign, eh?

No, it's not.

The fact that it has not been possible to write to the partition table is certainly troublesome. I am curious to see if you have any better luck with writing to it when you try deleting the partition from the table.

Do you remember if the LED blinked when running mkdosfs?

It will be interesting to see what is in the partition's boot sector, to see if there is any sign of it being formatted properly. If not, perhaps it is no longer possible to write to the partition either.

[Edited 2013-Mar-04 to add above corrections in red.]

Last edited by npierce on Mon 04 Mar 2013, 12:00; edited 1 time in total
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Sylvander

Joined: 15 Dec 2008
Posts: 3444
Location: West Lothian, Scotland, UK

PostPosted: Mon 04 Mar 2013, 05:14    Post subject:  

npierce:
1.
Code:
dd if=/dev/sdb1 bs=256 skip=4096 count=1 2>/dev/null | hexdump -C

Gave:
Code:
# dd if=/dev/sdb1 bs=256 skip=4096 count=1 2>/dev/null | hexdump -C
00000000  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
*
00000100
#


And....
2.
Code:
dd if=/dev/sdb1 bs=256 skip=640 count=1 2>/dev/null | hexdump -C

Gave:
Code:

# dd if=/dev/sdb1 bs=256 skip=640 count=1 2>/dev/null | hexdump -C
00000000  28 80 00 00 28 80 01 00  28 80 02 00 28 80 03 00  |(...(...(...(...|
00000010  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
*
00000100
#


3. "Do you remember if the LED blinked when running mkdosfs?"
No, didn't look, but will look for an opportunity to do so ASAP.
Just tried it, and...
I thought I saw the faintest blink, but may have imagined it.
There was certainly no obvious blinking.

Semme:
4. "fdisk the drive again"
Here's what I get:
Code:
# fdisk /dev/sdb

Command (m for help): m
Command action
   a   toggle a bootable flag
   b   edit bsd disklabel
   c   toggle the dos compatibility flag
   d   delete a partition
   l   list known partition types
   m   print this menu
   n   add a new partition
   o   create a new empty DOS partition table
   p   print the partition table
   q   quit without saving changes
   s   create a new empty Sun disklabel
   t   change a partition's system id
   u   change display/entry units
   v   verify the partition table
   w   write table to disk and exit
   x   extra functionality (experts only)

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 1010 MB, 1010826752 bytes
196 heads, 9 sectors/track, 1119 cylinders, total 1974271 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0009dcf9

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048     1972223      985088    b  W95 FAT32

Command (m for help): d
Selected partition 1

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 1010 MB, 1010826752 bytes
196 heads, 9 sectors/track, 1119 cylinders, total 1974271 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0009dcf9

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
# fdisk /dev/sdb

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 1010 MB, 1010826752 bytes
196 heads, 9 sectors/track, 1119 cylinders, total 1974271 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0009dcf9

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048     1972223      985088    b  W95 FAT32

Command (m for help):

I read that as a FAILURE to delete. Sad
Am I correct?
p.s. The Flash Drive was plugged in, its icon [sdb1] was displayed on the desktop, and no attempt had been made to mount the partition.
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